It is the perfect combination of science and art, which expands the boundaries of human knowledge, and at the same time it is fascinating. This was the answer when Professor Henry Stommel, the innovator of oceanography, showed his colleagues a model explaining the movement of sea water in the 1960s. Decades later, Dr. Michael E. Mann, Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Sciences at Pennsylvania State University, still possesses the “elegant” nature of what he calls the Stommel model.
The cool box at high latitudes and the warm salt box at low latitudes represent the North Atlantic, Mann told Sharon via email. He showed that this simple model predicts the inverse “thermohaline” circulation-circulation caused by the difference in water density in the ocean caused by temperature and salinity, each of which affects the density of water that is in the Atlantic Ocean.
Scientists have discovered the so-called tipping circulation, or AMOC for short, in the South Atlantic. When it comes to moving around in the ocean, AMOC is a complex conveyor belt system. The first zone contains warm water flowing northward, where it cools, evaporates, and increases the salinity of the sea; then this water cools, floods, and flows south, forming the second large zone. These ocean currents are connected by regions of the North Sea, Labrador Sea, and the Southern Ocean, keeping sea levels on the east coast of the United States low and warming Europe’s climate.
This current system brings together many different parts of life on earth: tides, cyclones, sea level, marine life, salinity, fishing, water pollution, temperature, climate-all depend on this current system. Systematic work can fundamentally change life on earth. Ken Caldera, an atmospheric scientist in the Department of Science at the Carnegie Institute for Global Ecology, said that ultimately it is impossible to predict with certainty what will happen if AMOC slows down, but it is very important. It may not be good.